LED là gì, cấu tạo và nguyên lý hoạt động của đèn LED

Hiện nay, đèn LED đã rất phổ biến và được ứng dụng rất nhiều trong chiếu sáng dân dụng và công nghiệp. Công nghệ đèn LED cũng đã có những bước phát triển dài, mặc dù được phát hiện ra lần đầu vào năm 1907 bởi H. J. Round, tuy nhiên phải đến những năm đầu thế kỷ 21 LED mới được áp dụng rộng dãi.

Đèn LED các loại màu

LED là gì?

LED viết tắt của Light Emitting Diode tạm dịch là điốt phát quang, là các điốt có khả năng phát ra ánh sáng hay tia hồng ngoại, tử ngoại. Cũng giống như điốt, LED được cấu tạo từ một khối bán dẫn loại p ghép với một khối bán dẫn loại n.

Nguyên lý hoạt động của đèn LED

Lịch sử phát triển công nghệ LED

Thí nghiệm sử dụng dây dẫn và tinh thể Silic Các-bua (SiC) được thực hiện bởi H. J. Round tại phòng thí nghiệm Marconi từ những năm 1907, tuy nhiên phải trải qua rất nhiều thập kỷ, hình hài của đèn LED mới xuất hiện. Những năm 1960 các nước công nghiệp diễn ra cuộc đua khốc liệt về thiết bị bán dẫn, Gallium arsenide và Germanium là những chất bán dẫn đầu tiên được sử dụng trước khi biết đến Silicon. Các kỹ sư đã sử dụng hiệu ứng phát sáng của chuyển tiếp p-n tương tự với hoạt động của đi-ốt một thiết bị chỉ cho dòng điện đi theo một chiều.
LED được khám phá bởi James R. Biard và Gary Pittman vào mùa thu năm 1961, họ phát hiện GaAs phát ra tia hồng ngoại khi có dòng điện chạy qua.

James R. Biard trong phòng thí nghiệm

Năm Ảnh nhân vật Nghiên cứu, phát hiện
1907 H. J. Round người đầu tiên phát hiện hiệu ứng phát sáng LED H. J. Round kỹ sư người Anh thực hiện thí nghiệm cho dòng điện chạy qua Silic Các-bua (SiC)
1920 Oleg Losev Oleg Losev kỹ sư điện tín ở Saint Petersburg, Russia đã nghiên cứu về các đi-ốt phát sáng trong thiết bị phát sóng radio, các báo cáo của ông được gửi đi năm 1927.
1961 Robert Biard phát triển LED hồng ngoại James R. Biard và Gary Pittman hai kỹ sư người Mỹ làm việc tại Dallas Texas khám phá ra LED hồng ngoại nhờ một sự cố khi cố gắng tạo ra X-band từ đi-ốt điện dung GaAs, khám phá này tạo ra LED hoàn chỉnh đầu tiên trên thế giới.
Gary Pittman
1962 Nick Holonyak phát triển LED màu đỏ Nick Holonyack Jr. kỹ sư công ty General Electric tại New York phát triển ra LED màu đỏ, là LED đầu tiên có ánh sáng nhìn thấy.
1972 George Craford phát triển led mầu vàng M. George Craford phát triển LED ánh sáng vàng đầu tiên sử dụng GaAsP, sau đó ông cũng phát triển ra loại LED màu đỏ với ánh sáng mạnh hơn. Ông làm việc cho phòng thí nghiệm Monsanto tại St. Louis, Missouri.
1972 Herbert Maruska phát triển LED màu tím  
1976 Pearsall Thomas P. Pearsall kỹ sư người Pháp phát triển loại LED đặc biệt với ánh sáng cường độ mạnh sử dụng trong cáp quang, loại LED này là nền tảng cho công nghệ truyền dẫn cáp quang hiện nay.
1979 Shuji Nakamura phát triển LED màu xanh lam Shuji Nakamura phát triển LED màu xanh lam sử dụng GaN (Gallium nitride), phát minh của kỹ sư người Nhật giúp cho chúng ta có được các sản phẩm đèn LED thương mại giá thành thấp hiện nay.

 

nguyên lý hoạt động led cấu tạo led led là gì
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